Categories
Grammar Lesson 2 Korean

와/과,하고,(이)랑,및 (and/with)

When we want to say Noun A and/with Noun B, we use 와/과, 하고 or (이)랑 between the two nouns.

N + 와/과

1. 와/과 is formal, and usually used in writing. If the noun ends in a consonant, we append 과 to the end of the first noun. If the noun ends in a vowel, we append 와 to the end of the first noun.

부모님 쇼핑 갔어요. = I went shopping with my parents.

N + 하고

2. 하고 is used both in writing and in speaking, and can be used both formally and casually. 하고 is usually inserted in between the two nouns.

우유 하고 빵 주세요. = Milk and Bread please.

N + (이)랑

3. (이)랑 is the most casual and usually used in speaking. When the noun ends in a consonant, we append 이랑 to the end of the first noun. If the noun ends in a vowel, we append 랑 to the end of the first noun.

친구 영화를 봤어요. = I watched a movie with a friend.

N + 및

4. 및 is the most formal, and used in writing only. It is usually inserted in between the two nouns.

건강 피트니스. – Health and Fitness.

Categories
Grammar Lesson 3 Korean

(으)로 (by,with,direction)

N + (으)로

(으)로 is a noun particle that means by, with or direction.
Depending on how we use it, this particle can mean many different things:

1. (으)로 can mean ‘to’ somewhere when used with a location noun and a moving verb like 가다.

2. (으)로 can mean ‘by’ or ‘with’ when used with a noun and a verb that uses that noun.

3. (으)로 can mean ‘by’ or ‘from’ when used with a noun and a verb that explains the cause and effect.

Basically, (으)로 is a particle that ties some method, or reason between the noun and the sentence.

Examples

이 길 가세요. = Go through this road.

한국어 말해주세요! = Please speak in Korean!

사고 다쳤어요. = Hurt from an accident.

버스 갈 거예요. = I’ll go by bus.

Categories
Grammar Lesson 4 Korean

가지고,없이 (with, so, after, without)

Now we look at two grammar constructs that are used a lot in everyday Korean. These two constructs are 가지고 and 없이.

1. 가지고 means ‘with’.

신분중을 가지고 오세요. – Come with your ID.

V + 아/어/여 + 가지고

2. 아/어/여 가지고 can be used colloquiolly to replace 아/어/여서 in sentences, which connect sentences together with a reason/casual connection.

이걸 진짜 좋아 가지고 많이 샀어요. – I really like these so I bought a lot.

3. 아/어/여 가지고 can mean after doing something, much like how 고 나서 is used.

저녁을 먹어 가지고 신문을 읽어요. – After I ate dinner, I read the newspaper.

4. 없이 means ‘without’.

함버거를 케찹 없이 먹는거 좋아해요. – I like to eat hamburgers without ketchup.