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Grammar Lesson 3 Korean

(ㄹ/을)래요 (intention to do, suggestion)

AV + (ㄹ/을)래요

This ending is another future form ending similar to (ㄹ/을)거예요 and (ㄹ/을)게요 except in this case, we intend to do something.
If we use this ending as a question, then it acts as a suggestion similar to (ㄹ/을)까요?
To make this ending, we conjugate the verb with ㄹ if the ending is a vowel and 을 if the ending is a consonant and add 래요 to the end.
With verbs ending in ㄹ already, we don’t need to add ㄹ/을.

1. This ending is used when we have a will or intention to do something.

2. When used as a question, this ending is used when we want to suggest something to other people. This ending is often paired with the honorific particle (으)시 to make 실래요? when speaking in semi-formal contexts.

3. The 반말 ending is (ㄹ/을)래.

4. In general, this is a more casual ending form, even when using the honorific particle question form.

Examples

혼자 할래요. – I want to do it alone.

영화 볼래요? – Do you want to watch a movie?

Categories
Grammar Lesson 3 Korean

(ㄴ/은),는,(ㄹ/을),던 (past, present, future) particles, verbs into adjectives

We already know how to make past tense, present tense and future tense with verbs.
Now let’s learn how to use those tenses to modify nouns.
We’ve already learned how to turn verbs into nouns, but we haven’t discussed how to do it with different tenses, and how they modify nouns.

V + 는

1. We already learned how to make a present tense verb a noun. The common way of doing this is appending ‘는 것’ to the verb. To make a present tense verb an adjective, we just conjugate it with ‘는’. The particle ‘는’ before a noun in general means you are talking about the present (This particle is also used as the topic particle, but that’s unrelated to this).
If we want to express the fact that we are doing something in present tense, we just say [verb] + ‘는 거예요’ or ‘는 거야 (casual)’.

공부해야하는 것이 있어요. – There’s things I need to study (presently).

한국어 공부하는거예요. I’m studying Korean (talking about the fact of doing it presently). This is sort of similar to saying 한국어 공부해요, except more focusing on the fact.

V + (ㄴ/은)

2. To make a past tense verb an adjective, we conjugate it with ‘ㄴ/은’. The particle ‘ㄴ/은’ before a noun in general means you are talking about the past.
If we want to express the fact that we did something in past tense, we just say [verb] + ‘ㄴ/은 거예요’ or ‘ㄴ/은 거야 (casual)’.

공부해야한 것은 많아요. – I had a lot of things I had to study.

언제 여기에 온거예요? = When did you come here? – (talking about the fact of coming here in the past). This is sort of similar to saying 언제 왔어요? except more focusing on the fact.

V + (ㄹ/을)

3. To make a future tense verb an adjective, we conjugate it with ‘ㄹ/을’. The particle ‘ㄹ/을’ before a noun in general means you are talking about the future.
If we want to express the fact that we will do something in future tense, we just say [verb] + ‘ㄹ/을 거예요’ or ‘ㄹ/을 거야 (casual)’.

공부해야할 것은 많아요. – I have a lot of things I should study for.

언제 갈거예요? = When will you go? – (this is the standard future tense we already learned).

V + (았/었/였)던

4. In addition, there is another past tense particle that is slightly different than using ‘ㄴ/은’. You may have seen the particle ‘던’ attached to verbs/adjectives before. This is emphasizing the fact that something used to be that way, but not anymore. The verb it is attached to can either be in present form (아/어/여) or past form (았/었/였) to emphasize that its in the past.

했던 친구들이 지금은 다 외국에 살아요. – The friends that I used to know are now living overseas.

예전에 제가 자주 가던 곳이에요. – This is the place I used to go to before.

V + (ㄴ/은,는,ㄹ/을)거예요
V + (ㄴ/은,는,ㄹ/을)건데요
V + (ㄴ/은,는,ㄹ/을)거죠
V + (ㄴ/은,는,ㄹ/을)걸까요?
V + (ㄴ/은,는,ㄹ/을)건가요?

These endings are similar to using their ‘regular’ counterparts.
V + (ㄴ/은)거예요 is similar to the regular past tense V + 았/었/였요.
V + 는거예요 is similar to the regular present tense V + 아/어/여요.
V + (ㄹ/을)거예요 is regular future tense.
V + (ㄴ/은,는,ㄹ/을)건데요 is similar to the ending 는데.
V + (ㄴ/은,는,ㄹ/을)거죠 is similar to the ending .
V + (ㄴ/은,는,ㄹ/을)걸까요? and V + (ㄴ/은,는,ㄹ/을)건가요? are question endings similar to the question endings 까요? and 가요?

Categories
Grammar Lesson 4 Korean

아/어/여 보다,았었/었었/였었,본 적 있다/없다 (to try, done before)

In this lesson, we will learn how to say how to try something, and to say whether we’ve done something before.

AV + 아/어/여 + 보다

1. There isn’t really a verb for ‘to try’ in Korean, instead we conjugate the verb that we are trying to do into present form (아/어/여) and append 보다 as an ending.

먹어봐요. – Try eating it!

그 책을 공부해보세요. – Try studying that book.

AV + 본 적 있다
AV + 본 적 없다

2. When we ask others whether they’ve tried or done something before, we can do it two ways: We can either use ‘아/어/여 보다’ with a question ending, or we can append ‘본 적 있다’ with a question ending. Using [verb] + 본 적 없다 means you haven’t done something before.

한국에 가봤어요? = 한국에 가 본 적 있어요? – Have you been to Korea before? / Have you ever been to Korea?

난 가 본 적 없어요. – I haven’t gone before.

AV + 았었/었었/였었다

3. There is another way to say you’ve done something before, we can either use ‘아/어/여 보다’ in past tense, or use perfect past tense, which is conjugating the verb into past tense, then conjugating that past tense again. In short, it’s verb + 았었다/었었다/였었다.

서을에서 살았었어요. – I’ve lived in Seoul before.

한국에 가봤어요 = 한국에 갔었어요. – I’ve been to Korea before.