을/를 (object particle)

N + 을/를

Appending 을/를 to a noun denotes the object of the sentence.
When the noun ends in a consonant, the ending 을 is used.
When the noun ends in a vowel, 를 is used.

The object particle is usually used to indicate specifically which noun in the sentence is being acted on by an action verb, but just like the subject particle, if the meaning is obvious then it isn’t needed. Generally, if the object noun is farther away from the verb in the sentence, and its not clear what object the verb is acting on, then it is used.

Examples

어제 사과 먹었어요? = Did you eat the apple yesterday?

어떤 노래 좋아해요? = Which song do you like?

와/과,하고,(이)랑,및 (and/with)

When we want to say Noun A and/with Noun B, we use 와/과, 하고 or (이)랑 between the two nouns.

N + 와/과

1. 와/과 is formal, and usually used in writing. If the noun ends in a consonant, we append 과 to the end of the first noun. If the noun ends in a vowel, we append 와 to the end of the first noun.

부모님 쇼핑 갔어요. = I went shopping with my parents.

N + 하고

2. 하고 is used both in writing and in speaking, and can be used both formally and casually. 하고 is usually inserted in between the two nouns.

우유 하고 빵 주세요. = Milk and Bread please.

N + (이)랑

3. (이)랑 is the most casual and usually used in speaking. When the noun ends in a consonant, we append 이랑 to the end of the first noun. If the noun ends in a vowel, we append 랑 to the end of the first noun.

친구 영화를 봤어요. = I watched a movie with a friend.

N + 및

4. 및 is the most formal, and used in writing only. It is usually inserted in between the two nouns.

건강 피트니스. – Health and Fitness.

Irregular Verbs (ㅂ,르,ㄷ,ㅅ)

Now it’s time to learn about irregular verbs.

Irregular verbs don’t follow the regular present tense conjugations. There are four different verb endings you should be aware of: ㅂ,르,ㄷ,ㅅ.

1. If a verb ends in ‘ㅂ’, first if the vowel before the ㅂ is 오, then we remove the ㅂ, and add 오, else if the vowel before the ㅂ is not 오, then we remove the ㅂ and add 우. Then we conjugate it normally according to the regular rules.

어렵다 = 어려 + 우 + 어요 = 어려워요.

돕다 = 도 + 오 + 아요 = 도와요.

2. If a verb ends in ‘르’, first we remove the 르, and add ㄹ to the last vowel before it, then we add an extra ㄹ and then we conjugate it normally according to the regular rules.

다르다 = 달 + ㄹ + 아요 = 달라요.

모르다 = 몰 + ㄹ + 아요 = 몰라요.

3. If a verb ends in ‘ㄷ’, and it is followed by a vowel, first we change the ㄷ to a ㄹ and then we conjugate it normally according to the regular rules.
Only some ㄷ verbs follow this rule. Others conjugate normally.

걷다 = 걸 + 어요 = 걸어요.

듣다 = 들 + 어요 = 들어요.

4. If a verb ends in ‘ㅅ’, and it is followed by a vowel, we remove the ㅅ and then we conjugate it normally according to the regular rules.
Only some ㅅ verbs follow this rule. Others conjugate normally.

잇다 = 이 + 어요 = 이어요.

짓다 = 지 + 어요 = 지어요.