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Grammar Lesson 2 Korean

고,도,만,며 (and,also,too,only)

Let’s learn about three very commonly used particles: 고, 도 and 만.

V + 고

When we are talking about the same subject and want to connect two sentences together, we can just append -고 instead of using 그리고.
It’s very simple to use this construct, just change the ending ‘다’ of the verb in the first sentence to 고 and add the second sentence.

친구랑 만났 영화를 봤어요. = I met a friend and watched a movie.

한국에 가 일본에 갈거예요. = I’m going to Korea and Japan.

V + 며

-며 is very similar to using -고 between verbs except it is more formal and usually used in writing.

커피 마셨 버거를 먹었어요. = I drank some coffee and ate a burger.

N + 도

When we want to add the meaning of ‘also’ or ‘too’ to a noun, we use the particle ‘도’.
We append 도 to the end of a noun, and this also adds the meaning of the noun being the topic/subject of the sentence as well.
So when we use 도, we don’t use 는/은 or 이/가 with it.

집에서 요리해요 = I cook at home too.

저는 집에서 요리해요 = I also cook at home.

N + 만

When we want to add the meaning of ‘only’ to a noun, we use the particle ‘만’.
We append 만 to the end of a noun, and this also adds the meaning of the noun being the topic/subject of the sentence as well.
So when we use 만, we don’t use 는/은 or 이/가 with it.

Examples

맥주 주문했어요 = I only ordered beer.

집에서 요리해요 = I only cook at home.

Categories
Grammar Lesson 2 Korean

(이)나, 거나, 지만 (or,but)

Let’s learn about two commonly used conjunctions, or (나,거나) and but (지만).

When we want to say Noun A or Noun B, we use (이)나 between the two nouns. When we want to connect sentences together with the same subject, with ‘or’ meaning, we can just append 거나 to the verb ending instead of using 아니면 or 또는.

N + (이)나

1. (이)나 is used between nouns. If the noun ends in a consonant, we append 이나 to the end of the first noun. If the noun ends in a vowel, we append 나 to the end of the first noun.

사과 바나나를 먹고싶어요. = I want to eat apples or bananas.

V + 거나

2. 거나 is used to connect sentences together meaning ‘or’. It’s very simple to use this construct, just change the ending ‘다’ of the verb in the first sentence to 거나 and add the second sentence.

한국에 가거나 일본에 갈거예요. = I’m going to Korea or Japan.

V + 지만

When we want to connect sentences together with the same subject, with ‘but’ meaning, we can just append 지만 to the verb ending instead of using 하지만 or 그런데.

3. 지만 is used to connect sentences together meaning ‘but’.
It’s very simple to use this construct, just change the ending ‘다’ of the verb in the first sentence to 지만 and add the second sentence.

한국에 가지만 일본에도 갈거예요. = I’m going to Korea but I’m also going to Japan.

이 영화를 보고싶지만 친구랑 만나야해요. = I want to see this movie but I have to meet a friend.

Categories
Grammar Lesson 2 Korean

들, 의 (plural, possession)

I’m going to introduce two noun particles this time. One, -들, is attached to a noun to make it plural. Two, -의, is attached to a noun to signify possession by that noun.

N + 들

1. -들 is attached to a noun to make that noun plural, but this is only to emphasize plurality, because in Korean, a noun can mean plural without this particle too. For example, 한국여자 can mean Korean girls (plural), but 한국여자 means Korean girls, emphasizing Korean girls in general.

N + 의

2. -의 is attached to a noun to mean possession by that noun. The equivalent in English is to attach ‘s to a noun. But this isn’t always equivalent. In Korean, 의 is often used in situations where we wouldn’t attach ‘s to a noun, but its case by case. In general, it means possession.
In addition, even though this word is pronounced ‘uh-ee’ if you go by my pronunciation guide, it is sometimes pronounced ‘ehh’, similar to ‘에’, but it only has this pronunciation when its used as a possessive particle.

Note: When saying mine (저의, 나의), this often gets contracted to ‘제, 내’ in speaking. When saying yours (너의), this gets contracted to ‘네’, or ‘니’ when speaking.

Examples

한국사람들이 보통 아주 친절해요. = Usually Korean people are very kind/friendly.

내 (나의) 연필이에요. = It’s my pencil.