Grammar Lesson 3 Korean

(으)로 (by,with,direction)

N + (으)로

(으)로 is a noun particle that means by, with or direction.
Depending on how we use it, this particle can mean many different things:

1. (으)로 can mean ‘to’ somewhere when used with a location noun and a moving verb like 가다.

2. (으)로 can mean ‘by’ or ‘with’ when used with a noun and a verb that uses that noun.

3. (으)로 can mean ‘by’ or ‘from’ when used with a noun and a verb that explains the cause and effect.

Basically, (으)로 is a particle that ties some method, or reason between the noun and the sentence.


이 길 가세요. = Go through this road.

한국어 말해주세요! = Please speak in Korean!

사고 다쳤어요. = Hurt from an accident.

버스 갈 거예요. = I’ll go by bus.

Grammar Lesson 3 Korean

(아/어/여)서, (으)니까 (reason, cause, result)

려고 하다 is a grammar construct that is showing future action, and is similar to (ㄹ/을)래요 but in this case more like ‘going to do’ and is not just an ending; it acts more like a conjunction because unlike the other future forms, the ending 하다 can be treated just as any other verb. To make this ending, we conjugate the verb into present tense using 아/어/여, then we add 서 to the end. For (으)니까, we conjugate the verb with 으 if the ending is a consonant and add 니까 to the end. We can either use these as endings, or connect other sentences to them to show the logical connection.

V + (아/어/여)서

1. (아/어/여)서 is similar to using 그래서 to join sentences, except it is attached to the end of the verbs themselves, and can also be used as an ending by itself if the sentence is enough to show the reason. You can think of the sentence using (아/어/여)서 as explaining the reason behind something, and then following it up with the next sentence. (아/어/여)서 cannot be used in imperative sentences.

V + (으)니까

2. (으)니까 is similar to (아/어/여)서, except the connection is more direct and the sentence containing (으)니까 explains the reason more clearly. (으)니까 can be used in imperative sentences whereas (아/어/여)서 cannot. (으)니까 can also be shortened to (으)니 in colloquial speech.

N + (으)니까
N + (이)라서/(이)어서

3. Both can be used with nouns too. (으)니까 is just appended to the noun, but (아/어/여)서 has to become (이)라서 or (이)어서, with 이 appended if the noun ends in a consonant and either 라서 or 어서 added.


요즘에 바빠서 친구랑 못 만나요. – I was busy recently so I couldn’t meet my friends.

미국에 와서 뭐 할 거예요? – You came to USA, so what are you going to do?

친구니까요! – Because I’m your friend!

외국사람이라서 한국어 잘 못 해요. – I’m a foreigner, so I cannot speak Korean well.

저 지금 바쁘니까 나중에 전화할게요. – I’m busy right now so I’ll call you later.

Grammar Lesson 4 Korean

느라,길래,더니 (showing result with nuances)

In Korean, there are many ways to connect sentences, each with different nuances. With 아/어/여서,(으)니까, there isn’t a specific nuance tied to the situation, but now we will learn about three connective particles which do have specific use cases.

V + 느라/느라고

1. 느라/느라고 shows a negative result with a specific cause. The subjects should be the same, its only used in present tense and you can’t make a ‘let’s sentence using this form.

시험 준비 하느라고 바빠요. – I’m preparing for an exam, so I’m busy. (busy is the negative result).

V + 길래

2. 길래 shows that you are doing an action as a result of observation. When used in a question sentence, you are asking for the reason behind a decision.

비가 오길래 우산을 가져왔어요. – It’s raining so I brought an umbrella. (as a result of observing that it’s raining).

뭐 했길래 이렇게 지쳤어요? – What did you do to be so tired? (asking for details)

V + 더니

3. 더니 is very similar to 길래, except the two actions are either contrasted with one another, or one action is the direct result of the other action.

아침에는 춥더니 지금은 따뜻하네요. – The weather was cold in the morning, and now it’s warm (showing contrast).

V + 았/었/였 + 더니

4. This is the same as 더니 except with past tense forms.

전화를 했더니 친구는 벌써 나가고 없었다. – I called my friend but he already went out.