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Grammar Lesson 1 Korean

을/를 (object particle)

N + 을/를

Appending 을/를 to a noun denotes the object of the sentence.
When the noun ends in a consonant, the ending 을 is used.
When the noun ends in a vowel, 를 is used.

The object particle is usually used to indicate specifically which noun in the sentence is being acted on by an action verb, but just like the subject particle, if the meaning is obvious then it isn’t needed. Generally, if the object noun is farther away from the verb in the sentence, and its not clear what object the verb is acting on, then it is used.

Examples

어제 사과 먹었어요? = Did you eat the apple yesterday?

어떤 노래 좋아해요? = Which song do you like?

Categories
Grammar Lesson 2 Korean

들, 의 (plural, possession)

I’m going to introduce two noun particles this time. One, -들, is attached to a noun to make it plural. Two, -의, is attached to a noun to signify possession by that noun.

N + 들

1. -들 is attached to a noun to make that noun plural, but this is only to emphasize plurality, because in Korean, a noun can mean plural without this particle too. For example, 한국여자 can mean Korean girls (plural), but 한국여자 means Korean girls, emphasizing Korean girls in general.

N + 의

2. -의 is attached to a noun to mean possession by that noun. The equivalent in English is to attach ‘s to a noun. But this isn’t always equivalent. In Korean, 의 is often used in situations where we wouldn’t attach ‘s to a noun, but its case by case. In general, it means possession.
In addition, even though this word is pronounced ‘uh-ee’ if you go by my pronunciation guide, it is sometimes pronounced ‘ehh’, similar to ‘에’, but it only has this pronunciation when its used as a possessive particle.

Note: When saying mine (저의, 나의), this often gets contracted to ‘제, 내’ in speaking. When saying yours (너의), this gets contracted to ‘네’, or ‘니’ when speaking.

Examples

한국사람들이 보통 아주 친절해요. = Usually Korean people are very kind/friendly.

내 (나의) 연필이에요. = It’s my pencil.

Categories
Grammar Lesson 2 Korean

(으)시 (honorific particle)

When we want to ask someone to do something or make an imperative action, and we don’t know that person well and/or they are older than us, then we need to use the honorific particle (으)시.

V + 세요

1. When we are speaking in present tense, using the present verb conjugations (아/어/여) then we just replace the verb stem ‘다’ with 으세요 if the verb ends in a consonant or 세요 if the verb ends in a vowel.

V + (으)시 + …

2. Otherwise if the verb has another ending attached to it at the end, then we add (으)시 before the ending.

3. Because this is a polite particle, we have to use ‘요’ at the end or (ㅂ/습)니다 which are polite or honorific endings. We cannot use this with a casual or plain ending. We will discuss more about these endings soon.

Examples

푹 쉬세요. = Get a good rest.

빨리 오세요! = Come fast!

괜찮으시죠? = It’s ok right?

무엇을 하셨어요? = What did you do?