Categories
Korean Vocabulary

Measure words, Counters

Korean has different words to measure things called counters. The construction is noun + number + counter word.

The most general Korean counter word is 개 which is used for anything that doesn’t have a specific counter word.

Some other useful counters are: 명 (for people), 대 (for cars), 병 (for bottles), 잔 (for cups), 마리 (for animals), 권 (for books), 달 (for months), 장 (paper,pages,tickets).

When measuring something, usually native Korean numbers are used.

Examples

맥주 한 주세요. = Please give me a bottle of beer.

있어요. = There’s ten people here.

MEASURE WORDS
WORD TRANSLATION
COUNTER WORD FOR NUMBER OF TIMES
COUNTER WORD FOR PANTS OR SUITS
COUNTER WORD FOR GENERIC OBJECTS
명,분 COUNTER WORD FOR PEOPLE
COUNTER WORD FOR CARS
COUNTER WORD FOR BOTTLES
COUNTER WORD FOR CUPS, GLASSES
마리 COUNTER WORD FOR ANIMALS
COUNTER WORD FOR BOOKS
COUNTER WORD FOR MONTHS
COUNTER WORD FOR PAPER, PAGES, TICKETS
Categories
Grammar Lesson 2 Korean

Irregular Verbs (ㅂ,르,ㄷ,ㅅ)

Now it’s time to learn about irregular verbs.

Irregular verbs don’t follow the regular present tense conjugations. There are four different verb endings you should be aware of: ㅂ,르,ㄷ,ㅅ.

1. If a verb ends in ‘ㅂ’, first if the vowel before the ㅂ is 오, then we remove the ㅂ, and add 오, else if the vowel before the ㅂ is not 오, then we remove the ㅂ and add 우. Then we conjugate it normally according to the regular rules.

어렵다 = 어려 + 우 + 어요 = 어려워요.

돕다 = 도 + 오 + 아요 = 도와요.

2. If a verb ends in ‘르’, first we remove the 르, and add ㄹ to the last vowel before it, then we add an extra ㄹ and then we conjugate it normally according to the regular rules.

다르다 = 달 + ㄹ + 아요 = 달라요.

모르다 = 몰 + ㄹ + 아요 = 몰라요.

3. If a verb ends in ‘ㄷ’, and it is followed by a vowel, first we change the ㄷ to a ㄹ and then we conjugate it normally according to the regular rules.
Only some ㄷ verbs follow this rule. Others conjugate normally.

걷다 = 걸 + 어요 = 걸어요.

듣다 = 들 + 어요 = 들어요.

4. If a verb ends in ‘ㅅ’, and it is followed by a vowel, we remove the ㅅ and then we conjugate it normally according to the regular rules.
Only some ㅅ verbs follow this rule. Others conjugate normally.

잇다 = 이 + 어요 = 이어요.

짓다 = 지 + 어요 = 지어요.

Categories
Grammar Lesson 2 Korean

고 있다 (Present Progressive Tense)

AV + 고 있다

Present Progressive tense is the tense you use when you are saying you are currently doing something.
In English the equivalent ending is ‘-ing’.
In Korean, we remove the ‘다’ part of the verb, and replace it with 고 있어요, which is the usual polite form.

Note that the honorific version of 있다 is 계시다, so the honorific form of this structure is -고 계십니다.

Examples

저는 자고 있어요. = I’m sleeping right now.

지금 당신을 생각하고 있어요. = I’m thinking about you right now.