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Grammar Lesson 1 Korean

이/가 (subject particle)

N + 이/가

Appending 이/가 to a noun denotes the subject of the sentence.
When the noun ends in a consonant, the ending 이 is used.
When the noun ends in a vowel, 가 is used.

The subject particle is used to indicate the subject of the sentence. This is a more general usage than the topic particle (which is used more specifically), and is often omitted when talking when the subject is obvious. That is why in Korean, you don’t need to say ‘I/me’ or re-iterate the subject all the time, unless its not obvious.

Examples

좋아요? = What is good?

오늘은 날씨 좋네요. = I’m working tomorrow.

시간 없어요. = I don’t have any time.

Categories
Grammar Lesson 1 Korean

을/를 (object particle)

N + 을/를

Appending 을/를 to a noun denotes the object of the sentence.
When the noun ends in a consonant, the ending 을 is used.
When the noun ends in a vowel, 를 is used.

The object particle is usually used to indicate specifically which noun in the sentence is being acted on by an action verb, but just like the subject particle, if the meaning is obvious then it isn’t needed. Generally, if the object noun is farther away from the verb in the sentence, and its not clear what object the verb is acting on, then it is used.

Examples

어제 사과 먹었어요? = Did you eat the apple yesterday?

어떤 노래 좋아해요? = Which song do you like?

Categories
Grammar Lesson 2 Korean

와/과,하고,(이)랑,및 (and/with)

When we want to say Noun A and/with Noun B, we use 와/과, 하고 or (이)랑 between the two nouns.

N + 와/과

1. 와/과 is formal, and usually used in writing. If the noun ends in a consonant, we append 과 to the end of the first noun. If the noun ends in a vowel, we append 와 to the end of the first noun.

부모님 쇼핑 갔어요. = I went shopping with my parents.

N + 하고

2. 하고 is used both in writing and in speaking, and can be used both formally and casually. 하고 is usually inserted in between the two nouns.

우유 하고 빵 주세요. = Milk and Bread please.

N + (이)랑

3. (이)랑 is the most casual and usually used in speaking. When the noun ends in a consonant, we append 이랑 to the end of the first noun. If the noun ends in a vowel, we append 랑 to the end of the first noun.

친구 영화를 봤어요. = I watched a movie with a friend.

N + 및

4. 및 is the most formal, and used in writing only. It is usually inserted in between the two nouns.

건강 피트니스. – Health and Fitness.