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Grammar Lesson 4 Korean

(지다,이/히/리/기,되다) Passive Verbs

What are passive verbs? A passive verb is a word that indicates that an action was done in the past. In English, we say something is/are/was done to make it passive. In Korea, there are several ways to make a passive verb. Keep in mind that while passive verbs are used often, it is often more natural just to use the active form of a verb. For example, to find rather than is found, to close rather than is closed, etc. Also, passive verbs also can mean the possibility of taking that action.

AV + (아/어/여)지다

1. When used with an action verb, (아/어/여)지다 turns the verb into a passive verb.

주다 (to give) + (아/어/여)지다 = 주어지다 = to be given = can be given

자르다 (to cut) + ㄹ라 (irregular) + 지다 = 잘라지다 = to be cut = can be but

AV + 이/히/리/기다

2. Generally, when the verb ends in ㅎ, 이다 is the ending.
When the verb ends in ㄱ,ㄷ,ㅂ 히 is the ending.
When the verb ends in ㄹ, 리 is the ending.
When the verb ends in ㄴ,ㅁ,ㅅ,ㅊ 기 is the ending.

놓다 (to put down) + 이 = 놓이다 = to be put down = can be put down

먹다 (to eat) + 히다 = 먹히다 = to be eaten = can be eaten

밀다 (to push) + 리다 = 밀리다 = to be pushed = can be pushed

씻다 (to wash) + 기다 = 씻기다 = to be washed = can be washed

AV + 되다

3. Only 하다 verbs use this ending. 하다 verbs become 되다 verbs when they become passive.

이용하다 (to use) – change into 되다 = 이용되다 = to be used = can be used

연구하다 (to research) – change into 되다 = 연구되다 = to be researched = can be researched

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Grammar Lesson 4 Korean

다는,다고,라는,라고,자고,냐고 Indirect speech

When we want to quote someone or reference something that you heard/said/read/etc or a fact that you know, then you have to conjugate the verb a special way in Korean, by using (이)라는,(이)라고 for nouns, and (ㄴ/는)다는,(ㄴ/는)다고 for verbs.

N + (이)라고 하다
N + (이)라고 + 말하다/듣다/읽다/쓰다
N + (이)래요

1. To say that a noun is called something, you use you use N + (이)라고 하다.
If it’s something that you heard/said/read/etc, you attach those verbs too.
N + (이)래요 is the short form for (이)라고 해요.

라고 했어요? – What did you say?

그 사람이 성생님이라고 들었어요. – I heard that this person is a teacher.

N1 + (이)라는 + N2
N1 + (이)란 + N2

2. You use N1 + (이)라는 + N2 when you want to reference a noun which is called another noun.
This is equivalent to saying, a N who is N.
N1 + (이)란 + N2 is the short form.

성생님이라는 사람 – This person who is a teacher

V + (ㄴ/는)다고 하다
V + (ㄴ/는)다고 + 말하다/듣다/읽다/쓰다
V + (ㄴ/는)대요

3. To say that V happened, but you know it indirectly, you use V + (ㄴ/는)다고 하다.
If it’s something that you heard/said/read/etc, you attach those verbs too.
V + (ㄴ/는)대요 is the short form for (ㄴ/는)다고 해요.

라고 했어요? – What did you say?

그 사람이 내일 온다고 해요. – He said he will come tomorrow.

이거 재미있다고 들었어요. – I heard that this is fun.

V + (ㄴ/는)다는 + N
V + (ㄴ/는)단 + N

4. You use V + 다는 + N when you want to reference a noun which has an indirect verb as an adjective modifying it.
This is equivalent to saying, a N which is / who is doing V.
V + 단 + N is the short form.

한국에 간다는 사람 – A person who is going to Korea.

나는 그녀가 도착했다는 것 알아요. – I know the fact that she had arrived.

V + (으)라고 하다
V + (으)래요

5. You use V + (으)라고 하다 when you are quoting an imperative statement.
V + 래요 is the short form.

그 사람한테 하지말라고 했어요! – I told him to stop doing it!

V + 자고 하다
V + 재요

6. You use V + 자고 하다 when you are quoting an suggestive statement.
V + 래요 is the short form.

친구랑 집앞에서 만나자고 말했어요 – I told to meet my friend in front of the house.

V + 냐고 하다
V + 냬요

7. You use V + 냐고 하다 when you are quoting an interrogative question.
V + 냬요 is the short form.

그 놈은 잘 지내냐고 말했어요 – That guy asked me how I was doing.

V + 더라고 하다

8. You use 더라고 하다 when you are quoting something that you saw directly or experienced first hand.

사람이 진짜 많더라고요! – There was a lot of people there! (I saw with my eyes)

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Grammar Lesson 4 Korean

Korean expressions part 1

There are a lot of Korean grammar expressions to go through, and now we will cover some of them. Here we will learn how to express whether or not we know something, how to do something, no choice but to do something, as soon as we do something, and to end up doing something.

V + (은/는/든)지
V + (은/는/든)지 알다
V + (은/는/든)지 모르다

1. V + (은/는/든)지 알다/모르다 is used to express whether you know something or don’t know something. The ending V + (은/는/든)지 expresses ‘whether or not’ and we combine it with 알다 (to know) and 모르다 (to not know).

뭘 배우든지 열심히 해야 돼요. – Work hard at whatever you are learning.

내일 우리 만날 수 있는지 알고 싶어요 – I want to know if we can meet tomorrow or not.

그는 오는지 모르겠어요. I don’t know if he’s coming or not.

V + (ㄹ/을) 줄 알다
V + (ㄹ/을) 줄 모르다
V + (ㄴ/은,는,ㄹ/을) 줄 알았다

2. V + (ㄹ/을) 줄 알다/모르다 is used to express whether you know how to do something or don’t know how to do something. V + (ㄹ/을) 줄 알았다 is used to express that you knew or thought something.

한식을 요리할 줄 알아요? – Do you know how to cook Korean food?

기타를 칠 줄 몰라요. – I don’t know how to play guitar.

사람이 많을 줄 알았어요. – I thought there would be a lot of people.

V + (ㄹ/을) 수밖에 없다

3. V + (ㄹ/을) 수밖에 없다 is used to express ‘I have no choice but to do V’, or ‘I can only do V’.

친구가 늦게 올 거라고 해서 우리는 기다릴 수밖에 없어요. – Our friend said he is coming late, so we have no choice but to wait for him.

V + 자마자
V + 기가 무섭게
V + 기가 바쁘게

4. There are three related expressions here, all meaning ‘as soon as V’ / ‘right after V’, but out of the three, V + 자마자 is the most common, and V + 기가 무섭게/바쁘게 is used less.

아침에 눈을 뜨자마자 집에서 나왔어요. – I left the house as soon as I woke up in the morning.

수업이 끝나기가 바쁘게 학생들이 교실 밖으로 나갔어요. – The students left the classroom as soon as the class finished.

음식이 주문하기가 무섭게 나왔어요. – The food came out right after we finished ordering.

V + 게 되다

5. This expression means to end up doing V, or to happen to do V by chance.

여자친구가 한국에 살아서 오게 되었어요. – My girlfriend lives in Korea, so I ended up coming here.

V + (ㄹ/을)뻔했다

6. This expression means to almost end up doing something, or almost did something.

난 죽을뻔했어요. – I almost died.