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Grammar Lesson 3 Korean

(ㄴ/은),운,(적)인 Adjectives

In Korean there is a very simple way to make an adjective.

DV + (ㄴ/은)

1.You take a descriptive verb, remove the ‘다’ base, and if it ends in a vowel, you add ㄴ to the bottom, and if it ends in a consonant, you append 은, and place it in front of the noun you want to describe. That’s it.

작다 = to be small. 작 + 은 = 작은 = small.

행복하다 = to be happy. 행복하 + ㄴ = 행복한 = happy.

예쁘다 = to be pretty. 예쁘 + ㄴ = 예쁜 = pretty.

DV + 운

2. For verbs that end in ‘ㅂ’, you remove the ‘ㅂ’ and append ‘운’ instead.

아름답다 = to be beautiful. 아름다 + 운 = 아름다운 = beautiful.

N + 적 + 인

3. You might see the word ‘적’ attached to some nouns. This is the equivalent of adding ‘-ness’ to a noun, but to make it actually modify a noun, you have to append ‘인’ in addition to ‘적’.

사교적인 = 사교 (social) + 적 (social-ness) + 인 = sociable.

Examples

예쁜 여자 있어요! = There’s a pretty girl!

그는 진짜 조용한 사람이에요. = He’s a really quiet guy.

For a list of common descriptive verbs, there’s a list here.

DV + (아/어/여)지다

3. Attaching (아/어/여)지다 to a descriptive verb (adjective) means ‘to become + DV’.

Examples

예뻐졌어요! = (It) became prettier!

Categories
Grammar Lesson 3 Korean

보다,편이다 (compared to, relatively, preference)

보다 is used for comparing two nouns. 아/어/여 편이다 is used for preference or to say relatively [verb].

N1 + 은/는 + N2 + 보다 + 더 + …

1. 보다 is attached to a noun, and is used for saying something like ‘A is more [verb] than B’. To make this sentence, in Korean we write A은/는 B보다 더 [verb], or B보다 A는 더 [verb].

V + 아/어/여 + 편이다

2. To say you prefer something more or mean to say relatively [verb], you conjugate the verb normally using 아/어/여, then add 편이다 as an ending.

Examples

한국에는 캘리포니아보다 더 추워요. = It is colder in Korea than California.

캘리포니아보다 한국은 더 추워요. = It is colder in Korea than California.

커피는 차보다 더 맛있어요. = Coffee is more delicious than Tea.

커피는 차를 좋아해 편이에요. = I prefer tea to coffee.

좀 더운 편이에요. = It is relatively hot.

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Grammar Lesson 4 Korean

겠 (intention,assumption)

Now let’s learn about a very common yet very complex particle, 겠. This particle can express intention to do something, or an assumption about something. Unlike other pieces of grammar we have learned, 겠 goes in the middle of verbs rather than at the end.

V + 겠

1. The most common usage of 겠 is to express your opinion, idea, or assumption about something. 겠어요 is the typical ending, but since 겠 can go in the middle of a verb conjugation, we can actually add other Korean endings at the end that you have learned, such as 네요, or .

저도 들어가겠네요. – I think I can get in too.

혼자 사는게 외롭겠죠. – Living alone must be lonely.

V + 겠습니다
V + 시겠습니까?

2. 겠 is often used in formal expressions. In the deferential form, 겠 can be used to express intention, or a request.

어디로 가시겠습니까? – Where you would you like to go?

3. 겠 is often used in set expressions or phrases.

힘들어 죽겠어요. – It’s been rough for me.

잘 먹겠습니다. – Let’s eat well.

잘 모르겠어요. – I don’t know.

알겠습니다. – I got it. I understand.