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Grammar Lesson 3 Korean

전에,중에,후에,밖에,안에,사이에 (before/during/after/besides/within/between), positional words

Attaching 전에, 중에, 후에/뒤에/다음에,밖에/외에,안에/속에/내에,사이에/중에 gives the meaning of ‘before/during/after/besides/within/between’ an event happens.

AV + 기 + 전에

1. 전에 is appended after a verb, and the resulting meaning is ‘before’ doing [verb]. Usually the verb is in the ‘기’ form that indicates the act of doing.

우리 집에 가기전에 커피를 샀어요. – Before I went to my house, I bought some coffee.

AV + 는 + 중에

2. 중에 is appended after a verb, and the resulting meaning is ‘during’ or ‘in the middle of’ doing [verb]. Usually the verb is in the ‘는’ form that indicates the present.

학교에 다니는중에 이상한 사람 봤어요 – I was in the middle of going to school when I saw a strange person.

AV + (ㄴ/은) + 후에/뒤에/다음에

3. 후에, 뒤에, and 다음에 are all appended after a verb, and all mean ‘after’ doing [verb]. Usually the verb is appended with ‘ㄴ/은’ to indicate that action is past tense.

우리 집에 간후에 친구랑 만날거예요. After I get to my house, I will meet a friend.

N + 외에/밖에

4. 외에 and 밖에 are both appended after a noun, and both mean ‘besides’ or ‘outside of’ this noun.

친구밖에 다른 사람이랑 안 얘기해요. Besides my friends, I don’t talk to other people.

N + 안에/속에/내에

5. 안에, 속에, 내에 all mean ‘within’ or ‘inside’ but differ in nuances. They are all appended after a noun.

올해안에 한국에 갈거예요. – I will go to Korea within this year.

N + 사이에(서)/중에(서)

6. 사이에 and 중에 both mean ‘between’ or ‘amongst’. They are both appended after a noun.

친구사이에 싸움이 있어요. – There is a fight between my friends.

POSITIONAL WORDS
WORD TRANSLATION
앞에 IN FRONT
뒤에 BEHIND, AFTER
옆에 BESIDE
위에 ON TOP OF
밑에 UNDERNEATH
다음에 AFTER
나중에 LATER
전에 BEFORE
후에 AFTER
중에 IN THE MIDDLE, AMONGST, BETWEEN
아래에 BENEATH
외에 OUTSIDE OF
안에, 속에, 내에 WITHIN, INSIDE, AMIDST
밖에 OUTSIDE, OUTSIDE OF, BESIDES
사이에 BETWEEN, AMONGST
곁에 BY ONE’S SIDE
Categories
Grammar Lesson 4 Korean

아/어/여 보다,았었/었었/였었,본 적 있다/없다 (to try, done before)

In this lesson, we will learn how to say how to try something, and to say whether we’ve done something before.

AV + 아/어/여 + 보다

1. There isn’t really a verb for ‘to try’ in Korean, instead we conjugate the verb that we are trying to do into present form (아/어/여) and append 보다 as an ending.

먹어봐요. – Try eating it!

그 책을 공부해보세요. – Try studying that book.

AV + 본 적 있다
AV + 본 적 없다

2. When we ask others whether they’ve tried or done something before, we can do it two ways: We can either use ‘아/어/여 보다’ with a question ending, or we can append ‘본 적 있다’ with a question ending. Using [verb] + 본 적 없다 means you haven’t done something before.

한국에 가봤어요? = 한국에 가 본 적 있어요? – Have you been to Korea before? / Have you ever been to Korea?

난 가 본 적 없어요. – I haven’t gone before.

AV + 았었/었었/였었다

3. There is another way to say you’ve done something before, we can either use ‘아/어/여 보다’ in past tense, or use perfect past tense, which is conjugating the verb into past tense, then conjugating that past tense again. In short, it’s verb + 았었다/었었다/였었다.

서을에서 살았었어요. – I’ve lived in Seoul before.

한국에 가봤어요 = 한국에 갔었어요. – I’ve been to Korea before.