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Grammar Lesson 3 Korean

전에,중에,후에,밖에,안에,사이에 (before/during/after/besides/within/between), positional words

Attaching 전에, 중에, 후에/뒤에/다음에,밖에/외에,안에/속에/내에,사이에/중에 gives the meaning of ‘before/during/after/besides/within/between’ an event happens.

AV + 기 + 전에

1. 전에 is appended after a verb, and the resulting meaning is ‘before’ doing [verb]. Usually the verb is in the ‘기’ form that indicates the act of doing.

우리 집에 가기전에 커피를 샀어요. – Before I went to my house, I bought some coffee.

AV + 는 + 중에

2. 중에 is appended after a verb, and the resulting meaning is ‘during’ or ‘in the middle of’ doing [verb]. Usually the verb is in the ‘는’ form that indicates the present.

학교에 다니는중에 이상한 사람 봤어요 – I was in the middle of going to school when I saw a strange person.

AV + (ㄴ/은) + 후에/뒤에/다음에

3. 후에, 뒤에, and 다음에 are all appended after a verb, and all mean ‘after’ doing [verb]. Usually the verb is appended with ‘ㄴ/은’ to indicate that action is past tense.

우리 집에 간후에 친구랑 만날거예요. After I get to my house, I will meet a friend.

N + 외에/밖에

4. 외에 and 밖에 are both appended after a noun, and both mean ‘besides’ or ‘outside of’ this noun.

친구밖에 다른 사람이랑 안 얘기해요. Besides my friends, I don’t talk to other people.

N + 안에/속에/내에

5. 안에, 속에, 내에 all mean ‘within’ or ‘inside’ but differ in nuances. They are all appended after a noun.

올해안에 한국에 갈거예요. – I will go to Korea within this year.

N + 사이에(서)/중에(서)

6. 사이에 and 중에 both mean ‘between’ or ‘amongst’. They are both appended after a noun.

친구사이에 싸움이 있어요. – There is a fight between my friends.

POSITIONAL WORDS
WORD TRANSLATION
앞에 IN FRONT
뒤에 BEHIND, AFTER
옆에 BESIDE
위에 ON TOP OF
밑에 UNDERNEATH
다음에 AFTER
나중에 LATER
전에 BEFORE
후에 AFTER
중에 IN THE MIDDLE, AMONGST, BETWEEN
아래에 BENEATH
외에 OUTSIDE OF
안에, 속에, 내에 WITHIN, INSIDE, AMIDST
밖에 OUTSIDE, OUTSIDE OF, BESIDES
사이에 BETWEEN, AMONGST
곁에 BY ONE’S SIDE
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Grammar Lesson 4 Korean

가지고,없이 (with, so, after, without)

Now we look at two grammar constructs that are used a lot in everyday Korean. These two constructs are 가지고 and 없이.

1. 가지고 means ‘with’.

신분중을 가지고 오세요. – Come with your ID.

V + 아/어/여 + 가지고

2. 아/어/여 가지고 can be used colloquiolly to replace 아/어/여서 in sentences, which connect sentences together with a reason/casual connection.

이걸 진짜 좋아 가지고 많이 샀어요. – I really like these so I bought a lot.

3. 아/어/여 가지고 can mean after doing something, much like how 고 나서 is used.

저녁을 먹어 가지고 신문을 읽어요. – After I ate dinner, I read the newspaper.

4. 없이 means ‘without’.

함버거를 케찹 없이 먹는거 좋아해요. – I like to eat hamburgers without ketchup.