Grammar Lesson 3 Korean

게,히,이,(적)으로 Adverbs

There are several ways to make an adverb in Korean.
Generally, the most common way is to conjugate the adjective with the ending ‘게’, but other words may conjugate with ‘히’, ‘이’, or ‘으로’, depending on the verb.

DV + 게

1. ‘게’ is the most common way of making an adverb. You just take a descriptive verb (adjective), remove the stem, and append 게.

맛있 먹어요! – Eat deliciously!

안전하 걸으세요! – Walk safely!

DV + 히/이

2. ‘히’ and ‘이’ appear sometimes, but not as often. It depends on the verb, as some verbs use ‘히’ and ‘이’ endings much more naturally than ‘게’.

천천 말해주세요! – Speak slowly!

한국어 많 들었어요. – I heard a lot of Korean.

N + 적 + 으로

3. ‘으로’ is only used with a specific set of adjectives. Mainly, those that end in ‘적’. Attaching ‘적’ is equivalent to adding ‘-ness’ to a noun, and appending ‘으로’ to that makes it an adverb.

일반 (general) + 적 (general-ness) + 으로 = Generally

사적 (personal) 으로 = Personally

기본 (basic) + 적 (basic-ness) + 으로 = Basically

Grammar Lesson 4 Korean

(지다,이/히/리/기,되다) Passive Verbs

What are passive verbs? A passive verb is a word that indicates that an action was done in the past. In English, we say something is/are/was done to make it passive. In Korea, there are several ways to make a passive verb. Keep in mind that while passive verbs are used often, it is often more natural just to use the active form of a verb. For example, to find rather than is found, to close rather than is closed, etc. Also, passive verbs also can mean the possibility of taking that action.

AV + (아/어/여)지다

1. When used with an action verb, (아/어/여)지다 turns the verb into a passive verb.

주다 (to give) + (아/어/여)지다 = 주어지다 = to be given = can be given

자르다 (to cut) + ㄹ라 (irregular) + 지다 = 잘라지다 = to be cut = can be but

AV + 이/히/리/기다

2. Generally, when the verb ends in ㅎ, 이다 is the ending.
When the verb ends in ㄱ,ㄷ,ㅂ 히 is the ending.
When the verb ends in ㄹ, 리 is the ending.
When the verb ends in ㄴ,ㅁ,ㅅ,ㅊ 기 is the ending.

놓다 (to put down) + 이 = 놓이다 = to be put down = can be put down

먹다 (to eat) + 히다 = 먹히다 = to be eaten = can be eaten

밀다 (to push) + 리다 = 밀리다 = to be pushed = can be pushed

씻다 (to wash) + 기다 = 씻기다 = to be washed = can be washed

AV + 되다

3. Only 하다 verbs use this ending. 하다 verbs become 되다 verbs when they become passive.

이용하다 (to use) – change into 되다 = 이용되다 = to be used = can be used

연구하다 (to research) – change into 되다 = 연구되다 = to be researched = can be researched