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Grammar Lesson 3 Korean

(ㄴ/은),운,(적)인 Adjectives

In Korean there is a very simple way to make an adjective.

DV + (ㄴ/은)

1.You take a descriptive verb, remove the ‘다’ base, and if it ends in a vowel, you add ㄴ to the bottom, and if it ends in a consonant, you append 은, and place it in front of the noun you want to describe. That’s it.

작다 = to be small. 작 + 은 = 작은 = small.

행복하다 = to be happy. 행복하 + ㄴ = 행복한 = happy.

예쁘다 = to be pretty. 예쁘 + ㄴ = 예쁜 = pretty.

DV + 운

2. For verbs that end in ‘ㅂ’, you remove the ‘ㅂ’ and append ‘운’ instead.

아름답다 = to be beautiful. 아름다 + 운 = 아름다운 = beautiful.

N + 적 + 인

3. You might see the word ‘적’ attached to some nouns. This is the equivalent of adding ‘-ness’ to a noun, but to make it actually modify a noun, you have to append ‘인’ in addition to ‘적’.

사교적인 = 사교 (social) + 적 (social-ness) + 인 = sociable.

Examples

예쁜 여자 있어요! = There’s a pretty girl!

그는 진짜 조용한 사람이에요. = He’s a really quiet guy.

For a list of common descriptive verbs, there’s a list here.

DV + (아/어/여)지다

3. Attaching (아/어/여)지다 to a descriptive verb (adjective) means ‘to become + DV’.

Examples

예뻐졌어요! = (It) became prettier!

Categories
Grammar Lesson 3 Korean

게,히,이,(적)으로 Adverbs

There are several ways to make an adverb in Korean.
Generally, the most common way is to conjugate the adjective with the ending ‘게’, but other words may conjugate with ‘히’, ‘이’, or ‘으로’, depending on the verb.

DV + 게

1. ‘게’ is the most common way of making an adverb. You just take a descriptive verb (adjective), remove the stem, and append 게.

맛있 먹어요! – Eat deliciously!

안전하 걸으세요! – Walk safely!

DV + 히/이

2. ‘히’ and ‘이’ appear sometimes, but not as often. It depends on the verb, as some verbs use ‘히’ and ‘이’ endings much more naturally than ‘게’.

천천 말해주세요! – Speak slowly!

한국어 많 들었어요. – I heard a lot of Korean.

N + 적 + 으로

3. ‘으로’ is only used with a specific set of adjectives. Mainly, those that end in ‘적’. Attaching ‘적’ is equivalent to adding ‘-ness’ to a noun, and appending ‘으로’ to that makes it an adverb.

일반 (general) + 적 (general-ness) + 으로 = Generally

사적 (personal) 으로 = Personally

기본 (basic) + 적 (basic-ness) + 으로 = Basically