Categories
Grammar Lesson 3 Korean

(으)로 (by,with,direction)

N + (으)로

(으)로 is a noun particle that means by, with or direction.
Depending on how we use it, this particle can mean many different things:

1. (으)로 can mean ‘to’ somewhere when used with a location noun and a moving verb like 가다.

2. (으)로 can mean ‘by’ or ‘with’ when used with a noun and a verb that uses that noun.

3. (으)로 can mean ‘by’ or ‘from’ when used with a noun and a verb that explains the cause and effect.

Basically, (으)로 is a particle that ties some method, or reason between the noun and the sentence.

Examples

이 길 가세요. = Go through this road.

한국어 말해주세요! = Please speak in Korean!

사고 다쳤어요. = Hurt from an accident.

버스 갈 거예요. = I’ll go by bus.

Categories
Grammar Lesson 3 Korean

게,히,이,(적)으로 Adverbs

There are several ways to make an adverb in Korean.
Generally, the most common way is to conjugate the adjective with the ending ‘게’, but other words may conjugate with ‘히’, ‘이’, or ‘으로’, depending on the verb.

DV + 게

1. ‘게’ is the most common way of making an adverb. You just take a descriptive verb (adjective), remove the stem, and append 게.

맛있 먹어요! – Eat deliciously!

안전하 걸으세요! – Walk safely!

DV + 히/이

2. ‘히’ and ‘이’ appear sometimes, but not as often. It depends on the verb, as some verbs use ‘히’ and ‘이’ endings much more naturally than ‘게’.

천천 말해주세요! – Speak slowly!

한국어 많 들었어요. – I heard a lot of Korean.

N + 적 + 으로

3. ‘으로’ is only used with a specific set of adjectives. Mainly, those that end in ‘적’. Attaching ‘적’ is equivalent to adding ‘-ness’ to a noun, and appending ‘으로’ to that makes it an adverb.

일반 (general) + 적 (general-ness) + 으로 = Generally

사적 (personal) 으로 = Personally

기본 (basic) + 적 (basic-ness) + 으로 = Basically