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Grammar Lesson 2 Korean

고,도,만,며 (and,also,too,only)

Let’s learn about three very commonly used particles: 고, 도 and 만.

V + 고

When we are talking about the same subject and want to connect two sentences together, we can just append -고 instead of using 그리고.
It’s very simple to use this construct, just change the ending ‘다’ of the verb in the first sentence to 고 and add the second sentence.

친구랑 만났 영화를 봤어요. = I met a friend and watched a movie.

한국에 가 일본에 갈거예요. = I’m going to Korea and Japan.

V + 며

-며 is very similar to using -고 between verbs except it is more formal and usually used in writing.

커피 마셨 버거를 먹었어요. = I drank some coffee and ate a burger.

N + 도

When we want to add the meaning of ‘also’ or ‘too’ to a noun, we use the particle ‘도’.
We append 도 to the end of a noun, and this also adds the meaning of the noun being the topic/subject of the sentence as well.
So when we use 도, we don’t use 는/은 or 이/가 with it.

집에서 요리해요 = I cook at home too.

저는 집에서 요리해요 = I also cook at home.

N + 만

When we want to add the meaning of ‘only’ to a noun, we use the particle ‘만’.
We append 만 to the end of a noun, and this also adds the meaning of the noun being the topic/subject of the sentence as well.
So when we use 만, we don’t use 는/은 or 이/가 with it.

Examples

맥주 주문했어요 = I only ordered beer.

집에서 요리해요 = I only cook at home.

Categories
Grammar Lesson 3 Korean

(으)며,(으)면서 (while, at the same time)

In Korean, we can use (으)면서 to express that two actions are happening at the same time or linking two actions at once.
We conjugate the verb with 으 if the ending is a consonant and add 면서 to the end. We have to connect another action to them.

AV + (으)면서

1. We can use this as the Korean equivalent of ‘while’.

저는 샤워 하면서 음악을 들어요. – I listen to music while showering.

2. We can use this to show contrast between two actions.

준비는 하면서도 걱정이 됐어요. – I was worried even while I was preparing.

N + (이)면서
N + (ㄹ/을)거면서

3. We can use this with nouns by using (이)면서 appended to the noun. We can similarly use this in future tense by using (ㄹ/을)거면서. 동시에 is often used in these sentences, as it means ‘simultaneously’.

그 사람은 제 친구이면서 동시에 선생님이에요. – She is both my friend and teacher.

AV + (으)며

4. The literary form of (으)면서 can be shortened to (으)며, and in this form, it can also function as ‘and’/’or’ meanings as well.

비가 오 하다. – It rains on and off.