와/과,하고,(이)랑,및 (and/with)

When we want to say Noun A and/with Noun B, we use 와/과, 하고 or (이)랑 between the two nouns.

N + 와/과

1. 와/과 is formal, and usually used in writing. If the noun ends in a consonant, we append 과 to the end of the first noun. If the noun ends in a vowel, we append 와 to the end of the first noun.

부모님 쇼핑 갔어요. = I went shopping with my parents.

N + 하고

2. 하고 is used both in writing and in speaking, and can be used both formally and casually. 하고 is usually inserted in between the two nouns.

우유 하고 빵 주세요. = Milk and Bread please.

N + (이)랑

3. (이)랑 is the most casual and usually used in speaking. When the noun ends in a consonant, we append 이랑 to the end of the first noun. If the noun ends in a vowel, we append 랑 to the end of the first noun.

친구 영화를 봤어요. = I watched a movie with a friend.

N + 및

4. 및 is the most formal, and used in writing only. It is usually inserted in between the two nouns.

건강 피트니스. – Health and Fitness.

Irregular Verbs (ㅂ,르,ㄷ,ㅅ)

Now it’s time to learn about irregular verbs.

Irregular verbs don’t follow the regular present tense conjugations. There are four different verb endings you should be aware of: ㅂ,르,ㄷ,ㅅ.

1. If a verb ends in ‘ㅂ’, first if the vowel before the ㅂ is 오, then we remove the ㅂ, and add 오, else if the vowel before the ㅂ is not 오, then we remove the ㅂ and add 우. Then we conjugate it normally according to the regular rules.

어렵다 = 어려 + 우 + 어요 = 어려워요.

돕다 = 도 + 오 + 아요 = 도와요.

2. If a verb ends in ‘르’, first we remove the 르, and add ㄹ to the last vowel before it, then we add an extra ㄹ and then we conjugate it normally according to the regular rules.

다르다 = 달 + ㄹ + 아요 = 달라요.

모르다 = 몰 + ㄹ + 아요 = 몰라요.

3. If a verb ends in ‘ㄷ’, and it is followed by a vowel, first we change the ㄷ to a ㄹ and then we conjugate it normally according to the regular rules.
Only some ㄷ verbs follow this rule. Others conjugate normally.

걷다 = 걸 + 어요 = 걸어요.

듣다 = 들 + 어요 = 들어요.

4. If a verb ends in ‘ㅅ’, and it is followed by a vowel, we remove the ㅅ and then we conjugate it normally according to the regular rules.
Only some ㅅ verbs follow this rule. Others conjugate normally.

잇다 = 이 + 어요 = 이어요.

짓다 = 지 + 어요 = 지어요.

고 있다 (Present Progressive Tense)

AV + 고 있다

Present Progressive tense is the tense you use when you are saying you are currently doing something.
In English the equivalent ending is ‘-ing’.
In Korean, we remove the ‘다’ part of the verb, and replace it with 고 있어요, which is the usual polite form.

Note that the honorific version of 있다 is 계시다, so the honorific form of this structure is -고 계십니다.

Examples

저는 자고 있어요. = I’m sleeping right now.

지금 당신을 생각하고 있어요. = I’m thinking about you right now.