In Korean, we can use (으)면서 to express that two actions are happening at the same time or linking two actions at once.
We conjugate the verb with 으 if the ending is a consonant and add 면서 to the end. We have to connect another action to them.
AV + (으)면서
1. We can use this as the Korean equivalent of ‘while’.
저는 샤워 하면서 음악을 들어요. – I listen to music while showering.
2. We can use this to show contrast between two actions.
준비는 하면서도 걱정이 됐어요. – I was worried even while I was preparing.
N + (이)면서
N + (ㄹ/을)거면서
3. We can use this with nouns by using (이)면서 appended to the noun. We can similarly use this in future tense by using (ㄹ/을)거면서. 동시에 is often used in these sentences, as it means ‘simultaneously’.
그 사람은 제 친구이면서 동시에 선생님이에요. – She is both my friend and teacher.
AV + (으)며
4. The literary form of (으)면서 can be shortened to (으)며, and in this form, it can also function as ‘and’/’or’ meanings as well.
비가 오며 말며 하다. – It rains on and off.